Water shortages, the limitations of current water supplies, the impacts of climate change, and new legal definitions of water and water rights are motivating water agencies to expand and secure their water portfolios. Included in the mix of water supply sources being considered are indirect potable reuse (IPR) and direct potable reuse (DPR). To assist water agencies, the WateReuse Association, the WateReuse Research Foundation, and WateReuse California have provided leadership by sponsoring a combination of research, advocacy, and education and outreach in IPR and DPR. However, a number of questions have arisen that demand answers. For example, how much will DPR cost versus other sources of water? What is the carbon footprint of DPR, and how much new water could be made available through DPR in California? To answer these questions, the WateReuse Research Foundation commissioned the preparation of this White Paper. The project evaluates the cost of direct potable reuse as well as the amount of wastewater available for direct and indirect reuse.
Originally funded as WERF project Reuse-14-08.