Research

Our integrated one water research touches the entire water cycle by addressing issues holistically and providing actionable solutions. WRF's research benefits all areas of the water sector, as well as agriculture, energy, clean air, watershed management, and other commercial industries. 

About our Research Programs

Our staff and Research Strategy Committee members have worked diligently to develop five comprehensive research programs designed to provide flexible funding and partnership opportunities to advance water research and innovation. Our focus is on applied research and innovative processes and technologies. We have a competitive selection process, proven quality control measures, and a nationally recognized expert peer review system.

Scenic waterfall

    Topics of Focus

  • Asset Management

    High-quality water service depends on having the infrastructure to meet the requirements of customers, utilities, and regulators. Because water services are asset intensive, utilities are constantly working to maintain these pipes, pumps, tanks, and systems, while also controlling costs and reducing risks. With deteriorating infrastructure, limited budgets, restricted flexibility in rates, and increasing expectations, utilities are on a continual quest for the most appropriate practices to meet these competing demands.

    137 Projects 12 Web Tools 5 Case Studies 18 Webcasts
    Project #4717

    Innovative Technologies to Effectively Manage Deteriorating Infrastructure

    $586,586
    Completed

    Project Highlights

    Water utilities are increasingly recognizing the importance of properly managing their infrastructure investments to achieve higher system reliability and service level at lower costs. As new technologies emerge for the water sector, application issues, cost-benefits, reliability, maintenance, durability, and performance...

    Principal Investigator
    Erez
    Allouche
    Research Manager
    Dr. Jian Zhang
  • Biosolids

    In the United States alone, billions of gallons of water are treated each day at water resource recovery facilities. Once the water is clean, a different challenge remains: determining what to do with the solids that are removed during the treatment process. The resulting mixture is often a unique semi-solid blend of organic and inorganic materials, trace elements, chemicals, and even pathogens, so there is no across the board solution for handling and processing the combinations of constituents that may be present.

    Because these solids are often rich in nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorus—which also happen to be the perfect ingredients for promoting healthy soil and plant growth—many facilities have turned to land application. Before these solids can be put to use for things like fertilizing farmland, however, they must undergo rigorous treatment to meet stringent regulations, at which point they become known as biosolids.  

    87 Projects 7 Web Tools
    Project #5055

    Biosolids Research Summit

    $75,000
    In Progress

    Project Highlights

    There have been many new advances with biosolids beyond land application of Class A and/or B biosolids (e.g., energy from biosolids, high-quality or exceptional-quality biosolids, etc.). Despite the research gathered to support the safety of Class A and/or B biosolids...

    Research Manager
    Mr. Ashwin Dhanasekar
  • Cyanobacteria & Cyanotoxins

    Aquatic microscopic algae and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) occur naturally in most surface waters, however certain nutrient and temperature conditions can lead them to rapidly multiply, leading to “blooms.” Under certain conditions, some species of cyanobacteria can produce toxic secondary metabolites or cyanotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals. Even when algae is not toxic, it can produce unpleasant tastes and odors.

    Cyanobacteria continue to be one of the most problematic organisms in our fresh water systems—with nearly a third of the United States reporting blooms. Without clear guidance or consensus regulations in place, many utilities struggle with responding to events. Since 1994, WRF has completed more than 30 research projects on these microscopic organisms and the cyanotoxins they produce, helping facilities detect, monitor, and manage these nuisance organisms—as well as communicate with the public.

    Questions? Contact Djanette Khiari, Research Program Manager, at (303) 734-3478.

    12 Projects 1 Web Tool 8 Webcasts
    Project #4738

    Benthic Cyanobacteria: An Aesthetic and Toxic Risk to Be Evaluated

    $50,000
    Completed

    Project Highlights

    While management of the risks from pelagic cyanobacteria are well established, there are no protocols for management of risk caused by benthic cyanobacteria. Recent research shows that benthic cyanobacteria are potentially major sources of taste and odour compounds, and toxins...

    Principal Investigator
    Claire
    McInnes
    Research Manager
    Dr. Djanette Khiari
  • Energy Optimization

    For most water facilities, energy is one of the highest costs in their operating budget. Stricter regulations are pushing facilities to use even more advanced—and energy-intensive—treatment technologies. Optimizing energy use can provide huge cost savings and numerous additional benefits, including improving air quality, protecting the environment, and bolstering energy security. WRF has published more than 100 projects that explore ways to not only optimize current energy use, but to generate power as well—setting the course for a self-sufficient water sector.

    76 Projects 11 Web Tools 4 Case Studies 9 Webcasts
    Project #4718

    Battery Storage System Guidance for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    $110,001
    Completed

    Project Highlights

    Battery energy storage systems (BESS) are increasingly being considered by water and wastewater utilities to capture the full energy potential of onsite distributed energy resources (DERs) and achieve cost savings. As new BESS technologies emerge, however, questions about applications, economy...

    Principal Investigator
    Carla
    Cherchi
    Research Manager
    Mr. Ashwin Dhanasekar
  • Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), also commonly referred to as perfluorinated chemicals or PFCs, are a group of anthropogenic chemicals with past and current uses in industrial processes and consumer products. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency classified some PFAS as likely human carcinogens. 

    PFAS are used in firefighting foams, coating for food packaging, ScotchGard™, and Teflon™, among other products. PFAS are highly resistant to chemical decomposition and can enter source waters through industrial releases, wastewater treatment plant discharges, stormwater runoff, release of firefighting foams, and land application of contaminated biosolids. 

    2 Projects
    Project #4322

    Treatment Mitigation Strategies for Poly- and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    $306,672
    Completed

    Project Highlights

    The first objective of this project was to conduct a literature review covering the global occurrence and treatability of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The second objective was to conduct a limited, strategically targeted assessment to determine the fate of these compounds...

    Principal Investigator
    Eric
    Dickenson
    Research Manager
    Mrs. Alice E Fulmer
  • Reuse

    All communities need a supply of clean, safe water. Some communities, and the utilities that serve them, have the luxury of tapping into additional water sources when their primary supplies face quality or quantity issues. However, because traditional water sources, such as surface water and groundwater, are highly dependent on location, many utilities don’t have easy access to contingency supplies. As increased pressures from drought, extreme weather, and shifting populations make backup supplies more critical, many utilities are looking beyond traditional sources to diversify their supplies. Many communities are also grappling with political and institutional issues, like local control of water supplies, driving the need to identify new, local options to avoid the need to import water.

    All of these circumstances make water reuse an attractive option. Potable reuse purifies water from wastewater treatment plants through advanced treatment methods to meet drinking water standards, while non-potable reuse recycles municipal wastewater and water from impaired sources for activities that don’t involve human consumption, such as landscape and crop irrigation, industrial processes, and other uses.

    193 Projects 6 Web Tools 4 Case Studies 6 Webcasts
    Project #4872

    Characterization of Organic Carbon and Microbial Communities for the Optimization of Biologically Active Carbon (BAC) Filtration for Potable Reuse

    $591,960
    In Progress

    Project Highlights

    Ozone-biologically active carbon (O3/BAC) filtration promotes “fit for purpose” advanced treatment for potable water reuse and is an economical alternative to more costly and potentially less sustainable potable water reuse approaches, such as ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis. This research evaluated...

    Principal Investigator
    Amy
    Pruden
    Research Manager
    Dr. Kenan Ozekin
  • Stormwater

    Precipitation fills our streams and lakes and soaks into the ground to replenish our aquifers. Most moderate rainfall is readily absorbed by soil, which acts as a natural filter as water moves through the cycle. But, in heavy storms, excess moisture can run off oversaturated ground. Because we’ve engineered so much of our land with impervious surfaces, that runoff can be excessive. Without the benefit of natural filtration, stormwater flows directly to waterbodies, storm drains, and sewer systems, taking with it any debris, chemicals, bacteria, eroded soil, and other pollutants it picks up along the way.

    While new technologies and green infrastructure help reduce pollutant levels, many solutions are best equipped to handle frequent, low-intensity storms, rather than the sporadic, powerful storms experienced more recently. To compound the problem, population growth and rising water demand have increased dependence on local water sources, including groundwater recharge—raising more concern over potential contaminants.

    68 Projects 9 Web Tools 1 Case Study 5 Webcasts
    Project #5001

    Climate-Resilient Planning for Urban Stormwater and Wastewater Utilities: Workshop Proceedings

    $95,000
    In Progress

    Project Highlights

    WRF in partnership with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, the Water Utility Climate Alliance, NOAA's Mid-Atlantic Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments program, and the RAND Corporation convened an invitation-only workshop in July 2019 in New York City...

    Principal Investigator
    Jordan
    Fischbach
    Research Manager
    Dr. Harry Zhang, Ph.D., PE
  • Water Use & Efficiency

    In the United States, per-capita water use has been declining since the 1980s, largely due to efficiency improvements from product standards, codes, and third-party certification programs. Federal and state regulations also impact water use. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 restricted water use in common household fixtures and appliances to save energy. The recent drought in California resulted in Senate Bill 606 and Assembly Bill 1668, which limit indoor water use to 55 gallons per person per day until 2025.

    Water efficiency is an important way to increase a utilities’ water supply reliability, decrease the capital costs of building a new supply, ultimately reducing treatment and distribution costs. Because water use trends will continue to change, utilities should be aware of and track the drivers of water use so they can plan appropriately for their service area.

    18 Projects 4 Web Tools 9 Webcasts
    Project #4619

    Developing Water Use Metrics for the Commercial and Institutional Sectors

    $376,859
    Completed

    Project Highlights

    This project explored the current and future structure of, and factors affecting, water demand in the non-residential sector. The research focused on 10 primary categories of customers: lodging, office buildings, schools/colleges, health care facilities, restaurants, retail stores, warehouses, auto services...

    Principal Investigator
    Amy
    Volckens
    Research Manager
    Ms. Maureen Hodgins

Current Projects

WRF has over 300 ongoing research studies covering dozens of emerging topics.  

Completed Projects

WRF has published findings for over 2,000 completed projects.

All Projects

Explore our entire $700M portfolio of applied research.