Project #5031

Occurrence of PFAS Compounds in US Wastewater Treatment Plants

In Progress
Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Ms. Mary Smith
CDM Smith Inc.
Constituents of Emerging Concern (CECs)
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
Water Quality


This study closely evaluated PFAS at 38 water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs), looking at both quantifiable and semiquantifiable PFAS, the contribution of precursors, and PFAS mass flows between the aqueous and solid phases. The ubiquitous presence and elevated concentrations of precursors (much of which consists of semi-quantifiable PFAS) highlights the need for identifying and managing these PFAS in WWTPs. Furthermore, the potential accumulation and concentration of hydrophobic precursors in concentrated streams such as scums/foams, dewatering flows, and solids may be an important consideration in management strategies. This dataset provides the scientific justification to develop appropriate guidance for site managers that benchmarks typical PFAS mass flows from WRRFs, sampling procedures and analytical methods, as well as potential mitigation strategies specific to WRRF unit processes. Published in 2024.