Project #1307

Sources and Variability of Cryptosporidium in the Milwaukee River Watershed

Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Dr. Daniel M. Woltering, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin at Madison
Microbes & Pathogens
Compounds of Emerging Concern (CECs)
Source & Receiving Waters


Several recent waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreaks have been attributed to possible treatment deficiencies linked with source water (watershed) contamination. The purpose of this research was to define the relative magnitude and contributions of Cryptosporidium from major nonpoint and point sources, and to characterize contributions of each source by factors such as hydrograph timing, climatic effects, and seasonal variations. The project team examined two watersheds - one rural and one urban - over the course of two years. This report presents the results of their research, as well as statistical models that can be used to estimate the probability of high Cryptosporidium levels from a given combination of conditions. Published by WERF. 132 pages. Soft cover.

Originally funded as WERF project 99-HHE-2.