Project #4309

Residential End Uses of Water, Version 2

Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Ms. Maureen Hodgins
Aquacraft, Inc.
Water Use & Efficiency
Water Demand & Forecasting


This project serves as a comprehensive update to WRF’s 1999 Residential End Uses of Water study. This update includes more varied site locations, hot water end use data, more detailed landscape analysis, and expanded water rates analysis. This project focused solely on single-family residences.

Deliverables include an Executive Report (4309A), a full report (4309B), and an Access Database (posted below under Web Tools). This database contains all of the end use water events recorded during the 2016 study, along with the survey response data, historic billing data, and other data obtained for each study site. The database also contains summary results from other end use studies. This resource can be utilized by researchers and WRF subscribers as a jumping off point for further research.

The electronic version of the Executive Report is available to the public, while the full report is available only for WRF subscribers. Printed copies of both reports are available to WRF subscribers. For non-subscribers interested in the Access Database, please email

Research partners and co-funding organizations: City of Fort Collins, City of Scottsdale Water Department, Clayton County Water Authority, Denver Water, Region of Waterloo, Tacoma Public Utilities, Toho Water Authority, and the Alliance for Water Efficiency on behalf of Portland Water Bureau, Region of Peel, San Antonio Water System, and Tampa Bay Water. Published in 2016.

**Please note that the first printing of the 4309A and 4309B hard copies contained several errors. A link to the Errata list is posted below. The PDF versions of the reports, posted below, have been corrected.

Residential End Uses of Water, Version 2 ERRATA

In addition, an article focused on this project was published in the October 2016 issue of Journal AWWA. The article is posted below under Project Papers.

Downloading this webtool constitutes acceptance of the terms outlined in our End User License Agreement.