Project #4619

Developing Water Use Metrics for the Commercial and Institutional Sectors

Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Ms. Maureen Hodgins
Brendle Group


This project explored the current and future structure of, and factors affecting, water demand in the non-residential sector. The research focused on 10 primary categories of customers: lodging, office buildings, schools/colleges, health care facilities, restaurants, retail stores, warehouses, auto services, religious buildings, and nursing homes. The objectives of this project were to (1) implement a defined process, based on findings of project 4375, for evaluating commercial/institutional customer water use and developing rate-of-use metrics; (2) estimate water use metrics and set water use benchmarks for select commercial/institutional customer categories; (3) develop a commercial/institutional water use metrics database that can be integrated with existing resources; and (4) provide guidance for water utility staff on how to use and implement commercial/institutional water use benchmarks. In addition to a research report, a guidance manual was developed to to help utilities get started analyzing CI water use and improving efficiency in their own service areas. Published in 2019.