Project #4619

Developing Water Use Metrics for the Commercial and Institutional Sectors

Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Ms. Maureen Hodgins
Brendle Group
Water Demand & Forecasting
Water Use & Efficiency


This project explored the current and future structure of, and factors affecting, water demand in the non-residential sector. The research focused on 10 primary categories of customers: lodging, office buildings, schools/colleges, health care facilities, restaurants, retail stores, warehouses, auto services, religious buildings, and nursing homes. The objectives of this project were to (1) implement a defined process, based on findings of project 4375, for evaluating commercial/institutional customer water use and developing rate-of-use metrics; (2) estimate water use metrics and set water use benchmarks for select commercial/institutional customer categories; (3) develop a commercial/institutional water use metrics database that can be integrated with existing resources; and (4) provide guidance for water utility staff on how to use and implement commercial/institutional water use benchmarks. In addition to a research report, a guidance manual was developed to to help utilities get started analyzing CI water use and improving efficiency in their own service areas. Published in 2019.