Although much attention has been paid to recycled water use for various irrigation and industrial uses, for toilet and urinal flushing, and in cooling towers and water features, little research has been conducted on recycled water use in zoo and wildlife facility settings. There is also little if any regulatory guidance on the use of recycled water for various uses related to animal care. Zoos are often identified as major water users. Efforts by these facilities to reduce the use of potable water, including the use of recycled water where appropriate, could save millions of gallons of potable water per day. This study presents initial research on the current status of recycled water use by zoos, wildlife facilities, and aquaria in the United States and abroad and examines water quality, treatment technology, potential animal health effects, and regulatory issues.
Originally funded as WERF project Reuse-07-06.