The recent adoption of stringent water-quality regulations for certain pollutant metals has renewed concerns about the discharge of pollutant metals by municipal wastewater treatment plants. To meet current and future regulations, municipal wastewater treatment plants may need to optimize or install new treatment processes. Decisions related to these issues require a better understanding of the concentrations and forms of pollutant metals in municipal wastewater and the efficacy of different treatment processes. This report (the first of two) summarizes the first phase of the research project and provides available data on pollutant metals in municipal wastewater and emphasizes chemical speciation and its role in the treatment process. Published by WERF. 86 pages. Soft cover.
Originally funded as WERF project 97-CTS-4.