Increasing demand for potable water throughout the western U.S. has forced drinking water utilities to consider lower quality source waters, but utilities have been reluctant to build reverse osmosis (RO) membrane plants due to the uncertainty surrounding the disposal of concentrate (brine). Concentrate minimization and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technologies show promise to provide cost effective means for brine disposal. The purpose of this project was to pilot test concentrate minimization and zero liquid discharge technologies suitable for use in Colorado. The report provides pilot test assessments of the zero discharge desalination technology and cost estimates for full-scale implementation of zero discharge desalination technology. The project included a literature review of concentrate minimization and ZLD technologies (WERF5T10a). Published by WERF. 286 pages. Online PDF. (2014)
Originally funded as WERF project WERF5T10.