This report summarizes the current state-of-the-science for analytical methods used to identify and measure unknown trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in recycled water. The researchers propose an integrated framework that includes targeted analysis of known contaminants, as well as semi- and non-targeted analysis of unknown contaminants by both instrumental methods and bioassays, along with the advantages and limitations of each approach. Includes a research plan to evaluate the utility of using these strategies for identifying unknown TOrCs, as well as a communications strategy that can be used by regulators, managers, and the general public. Research partner: California State Water Resources Control Board. Published in 2020.