Aquatic plants in a laboratory
Project #1807

Biosolids Co-Composting VOC and Ozone Formation Study Composting

Research Manager
Dr. Daniel M. Woltering, Ph.D.
California Association of Sanitation Agencies
Odor Control


The purpose of the project was to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from biosolids composting to determine to what degree these VOCs are reactive and thus could contribute to ground level ozone. It is known that not all VOCs are reactive, but biosolids have not been studied. There are proposed rules in California on this subject and it is expected that other parts of the country will face similar rules. The two test sites are in California, but the intent is that the findings would be applicable to other parts of the country. Published by WERF and CASA. 64 pages. Online PDF. (2011)

Originally funded as WERF project WERF2C10.