Technological innovation in the wastewater industry is significantly driven by local regulations—some of which stimulate innovation while others inhibit innovation, leading to excessive conservatism and cost. This project illustrated the impact of regulations on the optimal technological approach. Using a simulation of a realistic case study, the project evaluated how differing permit structures lead to a range of approaches for designing/operating water resource recovery facilities and how those affect water quality. The research team compared effluent permitting structures, assessed equivalent permit structures under variable conditions, and reviewed design practices and advanced treatment aspects of innovation-stimulating permit structures. Published in 2023.
Originally funded as WERF project NUTR-17-06.