This project evaluated, compared, and contrasted process models, impact assessment methods, and performance indicators used by water utilities in North America, Europe, South Africa, and Australasia to evaluate their energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The project also identified how these tools can be used to support management decisions at water utilities. The report discusses implications of differences, investigates opportunities towards a harmonized assessment method, and provides recommendations. Research partners: NYSERDA and GWRC. Published in 2013.