This study evaluated and compared the environmental impacts associated with different levels of wastewater treatment technologies that have been specifically designed for various degrees of nutrient removal and for removal of potential contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The findings of this research can provide a basis for utilities to communicate with regulatory agencies regarding the effluent permits development and regulation rationale changes to ensure larger scale and overall net benefits to water quality. Published by WE&RF. 82 pages. Online PDF. (2016)
Originally funded as WERF project NUTR5R14f.