This project demonstrates that online monitoring of waterborne metals by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) at trace levels, which has been successfully applied in the power industry for several years, can be applied successfully in water and wastewater treatment plants. A specially designed online XRF monitor was assembled, tested in the laboratory, and used at the City of Alliance, Ohio Wastewater and Water Treatment Plants from July 2002 until March 2004. At various times throughout this project, the metals monitored included iron, copper, chromium, nickel, zinc, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. Published by WERF. 68 pages. Soft cover.
Originally funded as WERF project 01-WSM-2c.