States and communities throughout the United States are looking to develop guidance and/or regulations to implement raw water augmentation – blending of advanced treated water and raw water prior to conventional drinking water treatment in a surface water treatment plant (SWTP). As part of this process, it is important to determine the benefits and challenges associated with raw water augmentation and treating blended water.
This project outlines the benefits and operational challenges of blending advanced treated water with raw water or filtered water at SWTPs, developed strategies for optimizing SWTP unit processes to address challenges, and developed approaches for validating pathogen log reduction credits under a direct potable reuse regulatory framework. Research partner: California State Water Resources Control Board. Published in 2023.