Project #1512

Nutrient Management Volume II: Removal Technology Performance & Reliability

Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Dr. Amit Pramanik
Hampton Roads Sanitation District


This cooperative effort featured a comprehensive study of nutrient removal plants designed and operated for three or more years to meet very low effluent total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. It examined what can be learned from existing technologies in order to provide a database to inform decision makers about proper choices for both technologies and rationale bases for statistical permit writing. Results help establish a practical and quantifiable protocol for the analysis of nutrient removal and nitrification plants striving to achieve low effluent concentrations. It found that statistical variability is a characteristic of all exemplary plants and that variability should be recognized in technology evaluation in an engineering environment as well as determining appropriate effluent limits in the regulatory permit setting environment. Published by WERF. 172 pages. Soft cover and online PDF. (2011)

Originally funded as WERF project NUTR1R06k.