Project #4761

Methodology for a Comprehensive Analysis (Triple Bottom Line) of Alternative Water Supply Projects Compared to Direct Potable Reuse

In Progress
Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Dr. Kenan Ozekin
Hazen and Sawyer
Reuse, Indirect Potable
Water Supply Planning
Reuse, Potable


The purpose of this project was to develop a quantitative framework with an accompanying tool for utilities to conduct a triple bottom line (TBL) comparison of various water supply and treatment options, such as direct potable reuse projects, indirect potable reuse, groundwater or surface water development, desalination, and demand management. The resulting Water Supply Evaluation Tool (WaterSET) can convert user inputs related to treatment, transmission, and overall operations to impacts across multiple TBL criteria. The report presents the conceptual and theoretical framework underpinning WaterSET. The User Guide provides a step-by-step explanation of the underlying data and calculations at each stage. Published by WRF. 118 pages. Online PDFs and Excel-based tool. (2018)

Originally funded as WERF project Reuse-14-03.