Inspection Guidelines for Wastewater Force Mains
This report provides a comprehensive review of the global state-of-the-art in inspection technology for pressure pipelines. It identifies technologies and methods used by utilities to inspect force mains, identify, and locate defects. It also reviews data management and processing and considers the application, effectiveness, and suitability of the different techniques for use in force mains. Ten case studies of actual inspections undertaken on pressure mains using technologies reviewed are included. The report proposes a structured approach to force main investigation driven by information need and cost effectiveness within a condition assessment and asset management program. Published by WERF. 320 pages. CD ROM and online PDF. (2010)
Originally funded as WERF project 04-CTS-6URa.