Project #1656

Implications of Future Water Supply Sources on Energy Demands

Principal Investigator
Pacific Institute
Utility Management
Energy Optimization
Resource Recovery


Water management decisions can have significant energy impacts. Water use requires energy in all phases, from collection to treatment to distribution to use to wastewater treatment. Multiple factors will influence the energy intensity of the water sector in the near future: climate change will affect water supply, quality, and demand, potentially creating a need for new water supply options; population growth, water use patterns, technology, and price all affect water demand; and emerging contaminants may require more energy-intensive treatment technologies. Water managers are also faced with rising energy costs and limits on greenhouse gas emissions. These trends highlight the need for a clear and consistent methodology for evaluating the energy and greenhouse gas implications of water management decisions. The project created a user-friendly tool that allows water and energy managers to evaluate the energy and greenhouse gas implications associated with water management decisions. The tool is scalable, suitable for individual water utilities, groups of water utilities, as well as policy- and decision-makers.

Originally funded as WERF project Reuse-08-16.