Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) is a sustainable disposal option that may offer a long-term solution to concentrate disposal for utilities that need to implement membrane treatment to produce safe water. In order to assist in the selection of appropriate ZLD technologies for pilot testing at two sites in Colorado in a later phase of this research project, the research team performed a comprehensive literature review of existing ZLD technologies. The literature review begins with a brief overview of existing concentrate disposal options followed by an in-depth examination of various ZLD technologies that could be evaluated by pilot test. The categories of ZLD options considered by this literature review include: 1) Intermediate Treatment, 2) Thermal-Based Technologies, 3) Pressure-Driven Membrane Technologies, 4) Electric Potential Driven Membrane Technologies, and 5) Alternative Technologies. Published by WERF. 72 pages. Online PDF. (2012)
Originally funded as WERF project WERF5T10a.