Ecosystems are impacted by a variety of stressors, both natural and anthropogenic. Policymakers, resource managers, regulators, scientists, and stakeholders need to work together to understand these complex interactions and make decisions using the best science possible with the broadest array of input from stakeholders. Additional research is needed to develop ecosystem-level, risk-based approaches to assess and manage multiple stressors in aquatic ecosystems. In the workshop on which this report is based, participants discussed and identified challenges and opportunities for research to improve ecological risk assessment and risk management. Participants developed and outlined a research agenda for addressing valuation, problem formation, and decision-making, and five priority research needs. The results of the workshop are presented in this report. 86 pages. Online PDF only.
Originally funded as WERF project 97-IRM-3.