This project determined hydraulic and carbon loading rates for constructed wetlands required to achieve different levels of EDC/PPCP and engineered nanomaterial removal as a function of hydraulic loading rates. In addition, the project determined dominant removal mechanisms (abiotic, biotic) for the different classes of emerging pollutants as well as developed design relationships, assessed other water quality changes that may impact downstream water utilities, and made recommendations to utilities on the potential benefits of constructed wetlands for treating surface waters. Research partners: EPA and WERF. Published in 2014.
Originally funded as WERF project INFR1SG09c