This report demonstrates the effectiveness of nitrogen removal by subsurface flow wetlands compared with free water surface wetlands, and of vegetated SSF wetlands compared with unvegetated SSF cells. It evaluates limiting factors for removal of nitrogen in the forms of ammonia and nitrate by constructed wetlands. A method for measuring denitrification rates in the laboratory was developed that represents conditions in the field. This method can be used to test possible organic carbon additives to determine the most beneficial nitrogen removal rates before introducing them into wetlands. Published by WERF. 130 pages. Soft cover.
Originally funded as WERF project 94-IRM-U.