A critical roadblock to the implementation of potable reuse projects is uncertainty surrounding the human health impacts of chemical constituents. This project will improve the understanding of whether potable reuse waters present higher chemical-derived human health risks than conventional drinking waters. The toxicity of a series of representative conventional drinking waters using either pristine or wastewater-impacted source waters will be compared to waters associated with potable reuse operations. In addition, the contributions of various disinfection byproduct classes will be quantified. Research partner: National Science Foundation.