Indicator Viruses for Advanced Physical Treatment Process Performance Confirmation


Advanced treatment processes for potable reuse are indispensable when it comes to mitigating microbial and chemical contaminants in recycled water. Viruses are a particular focus of water reuse treatment processes because of their acute health effects, low infectious dose, small size, and resistance to disinfection. Understanding the concentrations of viruses in source waters and specifying the log reduction values required to meet the appropriate risk levels for health protection are fundamental for safe and sustainable water reuse applications.

Project 4955, Indicator Viruses to Confirm Advanced Physical Treatment, identified and evaluated potential viral indicators for confirming advanced physical treatment at full-scale potable reuse schemes. Factors considered include: virus structural and biological features, resilience to treatment, wastewater characteristics, treatment technologies, plant capacities, U.S. geographic locations, and seasonal effects.

In this webcast, speakers presented the findings and results of this project, including a QMRA of the virus data with the aim of expanding the knowledge on human enteric viruses and newly recognized virus surrogates within the water reuse infrastructure in the United States.


Walter Betancourt, PhD

Associate Research Professor, Environmental Science

University of Arizona

Patrick Gurian, PhD

Professor, Environmental Engineering Program Head

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Drexel University

Jack Schijven, PhD

Professor, Department of Statistics, Informatics and Modelling

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)


Grace Jang, PhD

Research Program Manager

The Water Research Foundation