Antibiotic resistance is a major human health challenge of the 21st century. A growing body of research demonstrates that the water environment is a key recipient, pathway, and source of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARBs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). While environmental monitoring of ARBs and ARGs is needed in order to better quantify environmental contributions to the overall spread of antibiotic resistance and human and animal health burden, such efforts are hampered by a lack of standardized monitoring methods. The overarching objective of this project is to identify, develop, and validate standardized methods for monitoring ARBs and ARGs in water environments, including wastewater, recycled water, and surface water. Research partner: California State Water Resources Control Board.