Project #4716

Refinement and Standardization of Cyanotoxin Analytical Techniques for Drinking Water

Principal Investigator
Y. Carrie
Research Manager
Ms. Julie Minton
Metropolitan Water District of So California
Cyanobacteria & Cyanotoxins
Source Water Protection


There is uncertainty relating to the screening and confirmation of cyanotoxin samples. Water utilities need robust and dependable methods to monitor cyanotoxins in source water, through the treatment process, and at the tap, as well as to make appropriate decisions regarding operations and public notifications. This project evaluated existing chemical and biological methods for the analysis of cyanotoxins at extremely low detection levels in raw and finished drinking water. The project also provided unified methods and practical analytical guidelines for utilities to improve the quality of monitoring efforts. The research includes standardized and streamlined procedures to increase the accuracy, precision, and overall quality of cyanotoxin monitoring to provide water utilities with a clear path forward and help provide a solid foundation for future cyanotoxin research and regulatory decisions. Published in 2022.