Increasingly stringent WWTP effluent total phosphorus concentrations limits have challenged utilities to investigate treatment alternatives to achieve additional phosphorus removal. Thus, there is an urgent need to gain further understanding of effluent P chemical species in order to interpret and improve technologies for phosphorus removal to very low limits. This study investigated a number of wastewater treatment configurations to determine the various P fractions, and their fate and susceptibility to a range of different P removal processes in order to gain better insights into the removal efficiency and mechanism of different P fractions through various treatment technologies. Published by WERF. 136 pages. Online PDF. (2014)
Originally funded as WERF project NUTR1R06l.