Project #4971

Leveraging the Role of Pretreatment Programs in One Water Initiatives: Synthesis of Best Practices and Path Forward

Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Harry Zhang, PhD, PE
Carollo Engineers
Utility Management
Integrated Planning & Water Management
Water Quality


To support the concept of One Water planning, utilities and municipalities are better integrating water resources and expanding on traditional pretreatment programs. These innovations can provide a meaningful and cost-effective opportunity to support One Water initiatives. This project assessed the opportunities and barriers to expanding pretreatment practices for supporting One Water initiatives, which included evaluating pretreatment programs and their relationship to One Water goals; identifying regulatory requirements impacting pretreatment programs (including factors that drive or inhibit innovation); reviewing pretreatment programs and their relationship with the operations of publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and the commercial/industrial user community; and identifying potential opportunities to leverage pretreatment programs in implementing One Water strategies.

A white paper, published in 2022, outlines best practices, case studies, and the results of a national survey of POTWs and their related pretreatment programs.

A final report (4971A) consists of a nationwide survey and five unique case studies, the findings of which resulted in six key recommendations for leveraging the benefits of pretreatment programs more fully within One Water strategies.

A QuickGuide PDF (4971B) synthesizes best practices and a path forward for One Water initiatives. This piece provides an easy-to-use and effective guide for pretreatment program managers, utility leaders, One Water planners, clean water professionals, and regulators.

Published in 2023.