Identifies and develops methods to manage brine streams from water reclamation systems (including agricultural drainage) so that the water may be recovered for potable or industrial purposes while the salts are converted into solid by-products. Also determines the optimum combination of membrane, thermal, and solid-liquid separation processes for different brine solutions, and develop a computer model for optimizing unit processes for different water qualities. Provides a bench-scale testing protocol for simulating different brine concentration strategies. Research partner: Arizona State University National Science Foundation Water Quality Center. Tailored Collaboration partners: City of Phoenix Water Services Department, City of Goodyear, and City of Scottsdale. Published in 2009.