Project #4831

Hybrid NF/RO Sodium Removal Process: Phase 2 Pilot Study

Principal Investigator
Research Manager
Mr. Justin Mattingly
Brown and Caldwell
Advanced Treatment
Reuse, Membrane Technology


This research presents a novel approach to salinity control of reclaimed water that can yield substantially reduced costs for membrane concentrate disposal. This pilot study examined a two-pass system where the concentrate from the first pass (NF) is blended with permeate from the second pass (RO). The process is particularly suited to reclaimed water that is heavily impacted by water softener discharges, a phenomenon that has been demonstrated repeatedly in the desert southwest, particularly in communities using Colorado River water as a primary drinking water supply. Published by WRF. 218 pages. Online PDF. (2019)

Originally funded as WERF project Reuse-17-01.