The ability of ozone treatment to mitigate human and environmental impacts associated with pathogens and trace organic contaminants is making it a promising and trending treatment alternative in water reuse applications, particularly potable reuse. However, the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines and perfluoroalkyl acids could be a barrier to the widespread use of ozone. Therefore, an evaluation of their occurrence, factors affecting formation, and potential mitigation strategies is warranted. The project targeted the following objectives: Assess the formation of nitrosamines (e.g., NDMA) upon ozonation of treated wastewaters; Assess the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; e.g., PFOA and PFOS) upon ozonation of treated wastewaters; Evaluate the factors responsible for the formation of these ozone byproducts; Recommend potential mitigation strategies.
Originally funded as WERF project Reuse-11-08.