Ozone/biologically active filtration (BAF)-based treatment trains in potable reuse can typically produce high-quality reclaimed water that meets drinking water standards at a significantly lower cost and environmental footprint compared to reverse osmosis-based treatment. However, there is a need to quantify the removal of compounds of emerging concern (CECs) through ozone/BAF-based treatment of wastewater effluent. This project identifies CECs and degradation products that are persistent and are not reliably removed by ozone/BAF, benchmarks expected treated water quality from ozone/BAF-based treatment trains, develops ozone/BAF design and operational guidance, as well as develops outreach tools to assist agencies with expediting the implementation of safe and sustainable ozone/BAF-based treatment trains in potable reuse applications. Research partner: California State Water Resources Control Board. Published in 2023.
Originally funded as WERF project 17-04