The goal of this project is to provide utilities and regulators with clear guidance for pathogen reduction crediting for two key processes within carbon-based advanced treatment, including ozone (O3) and biologically activated carbon filtration (BAC). Objectives include (1) validating 4- to 6-log virus reduction credit through ozonation using an ozone to total organic carbon+nitrite (O3:[TOC+NO2]) ratio as the dose control method to optimize energy use and bromate formation while maintaining robust virus disinfection; (2) documenting pathogen removal through BAC with different design and operational scenarios; (3) advancing the O3:(TOC+NO2) approach with machine learning; and (4) developing an ozone validation protocol for the O3:(TOC+NO2) approach. The team will compile a robust dataset of existing studies and conduct bench- and pilot-scale testing at six utilities to confirm O3:TOC+NO2 dose control mechanisms and will then develop a validation protocol that can be used by utilities and regulators to confirm the optimum ozone operational approach.
Reporting Period: July – September 2023
Reporting Period: January 2023 – March 2023
Reporting Period: July - September 2022