Project #4561

Bench-Scale Evaluation of Alternative Cr(VI) Removal Options for Small Systems

Principle Investigator
Research Manager
Ms. Mary Smith
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Advanced Treatment


The primary objective of this study was to provide guidance to utilities needing to treat water containing greater than 10 micrograms per liter hexavalent chromium at a flow of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) or less. This guidance includes the effect of various water quality parameters such as sulfate, nitrate, and arsenic concentrations on treatment efficacy, preliminary site layouts for the most appropriate treatment scheme, and high-level budgetary cost opinions on the selected treatment scheme. In addition to the final report, the project produced the Cr(VI) Treatment Design & Costing Tool, which is posted below under Web Tools. Published in 2017.

Downloading this webtool constitutes acceptance of the terms outlined in our End User License Agreement.