Biofilms are the accumulations of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, opportunistic pathogens, fungi, algae, protozoa, and viruses) and organic and inorganic matter bound by extracellular polymer substances attached to the inner surfaces of pipe and storage tanks in water systems. Biofilms are ubiquitous in all distribution systems, regardless of water quality characteristics and pipe materials, and provide an environment for bacterial replication as well as protection against disinfectants and microbial predators.

Executive Tool Kit​