The costs and disruptions required to replace water main networks are potentially enormous. As a result, water utilities must select renewal technologies appropriately, collaborate with other city departments in planning and executing renewal projects, and minimize technical and social costs of pipe renewal. "Renewal" includes repair, rehabilitation, and replacement, but each is defined differently. There is a progression from repair to replacement and some degree of overlap among these options. The line between rehabilitation and replacement can easily be blurred.

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